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1.  History & Culture The arrival of Europeans in India was the result of direct and indirect consequences of the fall of Constantinople to Turks in 1453. The capture of Constantinople (and two other Byzantine splinter territories soon thereafter) marked the end of the Roman Empire, an imperial state which had lasted for nearly 1,500 years. The Ottoman conquest of Constantinople also dealt a massive blow to Christendom, as the Ottoman armies thereafter were free to advance into Europe without an adversary to their rear. The fall of Constantinople also severed European trade links with Asia leading many to begin seeking routes east by sea and keying the age of exploration. This paved the way for the beginning of the age of discovery. Read more.
2.  Indian Geography

ETYMOLOGY The name India is derived from Indus, which originates from the Old Persian word Hindu. The latter term stems from the Sanskrit word Sindhu, which was the historical local appellation for the Indus River. The ancient Greeks referred to the Indians as Indoi, which translates as “the people of the Indus”.

The geographical term Bharat, which is recognised by the Constitution of India as an official name for the country, is used by many Indian languages in various subtle guises. The eponym of Bharat is Bharata, a mythological figure that Hindu scriptures describe as a legendary emperor of ancient India. Hindustan was originally a Persian word that meant “Land of the Hindus”; prior to 1947, it referred to a region that encompassed northern India and Pakistan. It is occasionally used to solely denote India in its entirety.

LOCATION OF INDIA The Union of India is the seventh largest country in the world covering an area of 32,87,590 square kilometres and it is an important country of South Asia.

South Asia has a total area of about 4.488 million sq. km out of which India has the largest area(3.287 sq. km). It occupies 73.2 % of total area. Read More.
3.  Polity and Governance Preamble is inoperative part of constitution as it can’t be enforced in court of law, and is non-justiciable in nature. It can’t override and express provision of constitution. It confers neither substantive power nor limits the power executive, legislature and judiciary. They derive their powers from respective provisions of constitution. Hence, it has limited role to play. According to Supreme Court, if any provision is capable of two or more interpretations, help of preamble may be taken by courts. In such cases, that interpretation which tallies with preamble may be given effect by court. Read More.
4.  Economic Development Economics is the science of analyzing the production, distribution and consumption of goods and services. In other words, what choices people make; how and why they make them when making purchases. Scarcity is the basic economic problem that exists because we as humans have unlimited wants that cannot be met by the limited amount of resources our world has. Any good or service that has a non-zero price is considered scarce. It will cost you something to consume that good or service. Without scarcity, there would be no reason to study economics. People would consume everything they could possibly consume and not have to make choices or trade-offs between goods and services. Read More.
5.  Environment & Ecology The term ecology is derived from the Greek word ‘oikos’ meaning ‘house’, combined with the word ‘logy’ meaning the ‘science of’ or ‘the study of ’. Literally, ecology is the study of the earth as a ‘household’, of plants, human beings, animals and microorganisms. They all live together as interdependent components. A German zoologist Ernst Haeckel, who used the term as ‘oekologie’ in 1869, became the first person to use the term ‘ecology’. Hence, ecology can be defined as a scientific study of the interactions of organisms with their physical environment and with each other. Ecology is the study of the earth as a ‘household’, of plants, human beings, animals and microorganisms. A German zoologist Ernst Haeckel became the first person to use the term ‘ecology’ in 1869. Ecology can be defined as a scientific study of the interactions of organisms with their physical environment and with each other. Read More.
6.  Science & Technology The Indian Space programme under the Department (DoS) aims to promote the development and application of space science and technology for the socio-economic benefit of the country. It includes two major satellite systems, INSAT for communication, television broadcasting and meteorological services, and Indian Remote Sensing Satellites (IRS) system for resources monitoring and management. It has also developed two satellite launch vehicles, Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle (PSLV) and Geosynchronous Satellite Launch Vehicle (GSLV), to place IRS and INSAT class satellites in orbit. Space activities in the country started during early 1960s with the scientific investigation of upper atmosphere and ionosphere over the magnetic equator that passes over Thumba near Thiruvananthapuram using small sounding rockets. Realising the immense potential of space technology for national development, Dr. Vikram Sarabhai, the visionary leader envisioned that this powerful technology could play a meaningful role in national development and solving the problems of common man. Read More.
7.  International Relations

The term ‘international relations’ is exclusive of course, it does represent a widening of our concern from simply the political relations between nation-states, but it still restricts our focus to inter-national relations, whereas we think that relations between, say, cities and other governments or international organizations can be equally important to what states do. So, we prefer to characterize the relations we are interested in as those of world politics, with the important provision. One obvious example concerns the relationship between politics and economics; there is clearly an overlap, and a lot of bargaining power goes to the person who can persuade others that the existing distribution of resources is ‘simply’ economic rather than a political issue. Our focus is with the patterns of political relations, defined broadly, that characterize the contemporary world. Many will be between states, but many, perhaps most, will not. World politics in this globalized world. There is considerable dispute over just what it means to talk of this being an era of globalization, and whether that means that the main features of world politics are any different from those of previous eras. In this Introduction we want to explain how we propose to deal with the concept of globalization and offer some arguments in favour of seeing it as an important new development in world politics and also some arguments against such a view. Before turning to look at globalization in order to set the scene for that follow, we want to do two things.

Its theoretical perspectives Realism, Liberalism, and Marxism, have tended to be the main theories that have been used to understand world politics, with Constructivism becoming increasingly influential since the mid-1990s. Each seems to be particularly good at explaining some aspects of world politics better than the others, and an obvious temptation would be to try to combine them into some overall account. This is because the four theories are not so much different views of the same world, but are instead four views of different worlds. Realism on the power relations between states, Liberalism on a much wider set of interactions between states and non-state actors, Marxist theory on the patterns of the world-economy, and Constructivism on the ways in which we can develop different social structures and processes. Read More.
8.  World Geography

Eratosthenes, a 3rd century B.C. chief librarian at the famous Library of Alexandria, is credited as the first person to use the word “geography”. He is commonly called “the father of geography”. Alexander von Humboldt is commonly called the “father of modern geography” and William Morris Davis is commonly called the “father of American geography”. Most likely, Eratosthenes was not the first person to use the basic perspective of geography, the spatial perspective. In Eratosthenes day people already were undertaking the exploration of land and water areas of the Middle East and were carrying on trade across the Mediterranean Sea as well as across vast expanses of desert. Knowledge of how to get to some place and ultimately to return home was crucial to the sailors involved in loftier goals of measurement of earth’s size, calculation of distances, and creation of a geometric system for accurately defining location. Eratosthenes is given credit for making the first accurate determination of the size of earth.

The word ‘geography’ is derived from Greek and literally means “to write about the earth”. Geography is an all-encompassing discipline that seeks to understand the world- its human and physical features- through an understanding of place and location. Geographers study where thing are and how they got there. Geography looks at the spatial connection between people, places, and the earth. Read More.
9.  Ethics, Integrity & Aptitude

Ethical teachings have been an integral part of Indian education system since ages. Our ancient literature is full of lessons on ethics and morality. The process of imparting ethical learning used to commence in the lap of mother because she served the role of first teacher. Parents, kith and kin, peers and neighbours used to play an important role in the process of socialisation of an individual in the past but the life has undergone rapid transformations during the last half a century. Ethics are a requirement for human life. It is our means of deciding a right course of action.

In the past for most people and even for many people today, an objective moral standard that is binding on all people for all times exists. While there might be disagreement on what the standard was, most acknowledged that there was a “right” choice. But in the last half-century, there has been considerable erosion in the idea that a standard exists or is even needed. For many, decisions about what is right and wrong are complete personal and completely subjective: what is right for me may not be right for you. Such thinking asserts that whatever an individual deems morally acceptable is acceptable for that person. To judge that is often considered unacceptably intolerant and such randomness is often justified in the name of liberalism. Read More.

10.  General Science

Categories of Waves: Waves come in many shapes and forms. While all waves share some basic characteristic properties and behaviours, some waves can be distinguished from others based on some observable (and some non-observable) characteristics. It is common to categorize waves based on these distinguishing characteristics.

Longitudinal versus Transverse Waves versus Surface Waves: One way to categorize waves is on the basis of the direction of movement of the individual particles of the medium relative to the direction that the waves travel. Categorizing waves on this basis leads to three notable categories: transverse waves, longitudinal waves, and surface waves. Read More.
11.  Indian Economy

There are also schools of economic thought. Two of the most common are Classical and Keynesian. The Classical view believes that free markets are the best way to allocate resources and the government’s role should be limited to that of a fair and strict referee. In contrast, the Keynesian approach believes that markets don’t work well at allocating resources on their own and that governments must step in from time to time and actively reallocates resources efficiently.

The capitalistic form of economy has its origin in the famous work of Adam Smith Wealth of Nations (1776). He stressed on ‘laissez faire’ state i.e., non-interference by the government. The decisions of what to produce, how much to produce and at what price to sell are taken by the market, by the private enterprises in this system with the state having no economic role. Read More.


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